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The similarity in communication skills, attitude, knowledge, social system and culture between source and receiver is the main criterion to be considered if the communication is to succeed.

A survey conducted by Md. Previous studies, however, have proven that encouraging parents to become involved with school is not always an easy task. Academics such as BerloMcQuail and Schramm view communication as a process of sharing the meaning of a set of symbols. A key to interpreting communication is to find meanings of the message, and those meanings are found in people, not in words.

Pragmatic codes tend to be used in daily interactions within a situation Donald, Osterman concluded that it creates an open, friendly, collaborative and warm environment. For example, the word parent may represent a father and mother of a person who takes care of a child.

Studies conducted by local researchers such as Md. Robbins supports the idea that face-to-face interaction is an effective way of communication. However, for this study the word principal refers to a public secondary school principal given the authority by the Ministry of Education, Malaysia, to manage and to lead a school s administration Parents Parent could be given as a blanket term to cover biological parents, grandparents or other guardians of children.

Most parents are often reluctant to engage in school learning activities, even if they are aware that their participation generally has a positive impact on children s learning and social behaviour Farrell, ; Chavkin, This might be useful for 15 29 classifying features and for generalisation, but has ignored contextual details.

I do not forget all the key personnel and staff of National Institute of Educational Leadership and Management, Ministry of Education, Malaysia, who have contributed their time and effort. This suggests that the way of presenting messages, or style, may also be crucial to effective communication.

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These might cause misunderstandings, as people are constantly judging and being judged by their communication style. What communication style s do principals use with parents? It begins with an exploration of some important concepts linked to the term communication.

How do principals perceive their communication with parents? Poulou and Matsagouras 27 assert: This implies knowledge of their communication partner such as background, culture, purpose and topic of interaction of sender and receiver. How do parents perceive their communication with principal? Evidence in the literature on parental involvement indicates that what occurs at school and at home is important in determining outcomes for children.

Communication may be perceived as a straightforward process of sharing meanings, but, in practice, human communication is a complex on-going and dynamic process often leading to misunderstanding. In 19 33 the school home context, lack of parental involvement might be a sign that communication from teachers and principal has been poor, the parents are uninterested or too busy with daily occupation.

Direct influence might be in face-to-face communication, by telephone or. They find that schools often organise events for their own convenience and pay little attention to parents, who become disappointed and withdraw their support.

They claim that principals and teachers are reactive with parents, as they view the relationship as a back-burner priority, traditional and passive.

Focusing on the individual characteristics of communication, Berlo s SMCR model stresses the importance of the background and the relationship between source and receiver in effective communication.

Norton used his Communicator Style Measure CSM as an operational framework, using self-reporting measures on a Likert agree disagree scale. His instrument, however, has been criticised by interested scholars such as Talley and Richmond and Sypher who found it difficult to establish validity and reliability by following Norton s ; conceptual framework to measure communicator style.

Grolnik and Slowiazek define parental involvement as the dedication of resources by parents in given domains. Thus, a person s communication style is the individual s typical way of communicating and style is always present if communication occurs.

Norton ; argued that his measurement of communicator style met his self-reporting criteria as his research had a clear operational construct. However, the parents may resent the direction and display their objections to the matter to the principal.University of Southampton Research Repository (year of submission) "Full thesis title", University of Southampton, name of the University School or Department, PhD Thesis, pagination UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON Techniques for orientation independent gait analysis by Robert Trevor Boston A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment for the.

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University of Southampton Research Repository ePrints Soton of the University School or Department, PhD Thesis, pagination UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON The Structure and Behaviour of the Continuous Double Auction by Perukrishnen Vytelingum A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment for the.

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More information and software credits. Welcome to UM Students' Repository The Students' Repository provides an online archive for the written work of University of Malaya students such as academic exercises, dissertations and theses.

The University of Malaya Students' Repository is an initiative of the UM Library. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON This PhD thesis explores language attitudes and ideologies among migrant students of Basque in the.

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