Biology 101 notes

Please note that this only applies to the pdf format study guides. In Prohpase of Meiosis I, homologous chromosomes the 2 copies of the same chromosome inherited from each parent find each other and undergo homologous recombination- literally swapping parts of segments of the chromosome.

The pdf study guides on this site are licensed under a Creative Commons 4. Bacteria produce new cells through binary fission. This is necessary when an organism is growing or repairing damaged tissue.

This creates versions of the chromosome that are a hybrid of each. In humans a single cell has billions of these nucleotides which are strung together in a long line. These spindle fibers also attach to structures called centrioles. The spindle fibers are then used by the cell to pull the chromosomes around the cell.

This set of proteins then produces all the characteristics you can see in an organism. This means that each strand can separate into single strands and then each of these strands can serve as a template for a new double stranded DNA molecule.

In Anaphase I the homologous chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles, in Anaphase II the sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles.

Notes to Remember for Your Biology 101 Exam

The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds. The cell is the fundamental unit of life. Some organisms like humans are multicellular- made up of trillions of differientiated cells, while other living organisms like bacteria are composed of only 1 cell.

The replication occurs just before Mitosis starts in a stage of Interphase called the S phase Synthesis phase. They instead have a region where DNA is located called the nucleoid. This process of change is called evolution.

Sometimes this change will cause a change in the function of the protein that it encodes. Eukaryotic cells produce new cells through a process called Mitosis. It encodes information that determines which proteins are ultimately made in the cell.

The cell then divides into two cells- each with one identical chromosome. It is the same DNA molecule just given a different name depending on whether or not it is condensed into a structure that is visible under a light microscope.

In prophase you also have spindle fibers attaching to the centromeres regions of DNA on the chromosome. Examples of important organelles are the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms.

A number of these changes over time can result in an organism with different characteristics. They do not have a nucleus. Telocentric chromsomes have their centromere located at the end of the chromosome.

The list is meant to be brief so if any of the points seem unfamiliar, be sure to read more on the topic either on this site, other websites, your textbook, class notes, etc.

These hydrogen bonds are between Adenine and Thymine - 2 hydrogen bonds; and Cytosine and Guanine - 3 hydrogen bonds. DNA deoxyribonucleic acid is the molecule that stores hereditary information. The specific order of the nucleotides is what provides a code for specific proteins.

The chromosome DNA is replicated into two copies. This pairing allows one strand to serve as a template for the construction of a new strand during DNA replication 9 DNA replication is semi-conservative.

Some of the figures available under creative commons can be found here: This again is possible since A always pairs with T; and C always pairs with G. In other words it selects for changes that confer a selective advantage.Learn notes general biology with free interactive flashcards.

Choose from different sets of notes general biology flashcards on Quizlet. View Notes - Biology - Chapter 1 Notes from BIOL at Texas A&M University.

Biology Chapter 1 Exploring Life I. Biology's Most Exciting Era a. Some Properties of Life %(1). biology. If you’re studying the life cycles of living organisms, you’ve come to the right place.

We break down the processes of everything from bacteria to blue whales. Class Notes Biology Lecture. Lecture #1- What is Science? Lecture #2- The Chemical Foundations of Life. Lecture #3- Cell Structure and Function.

View Notes - Biology Notes - Enzymes and Metabolism from BIO at Simon Fraser University. ENZYMESANDMETABOLISM Metabolismrequireschemicalreactions. 1 Lecture Notes for Biology An Introduction to Science and Biology for Non-Majors Instructor David L. Alles Course Outline The organization of this course has been driven by the goal of.

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